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Radiation Protection In Operation Theater

 Radiation protection in operation theater is the main concern while doing any image guided surgery or any radiological procedure because in this process the patient, doctors, radiological technologist and operating staff is at high risk and direct contact with rays so  the radiation protection, radiation shielding material, light weighted Lead Aprons must be used. 

Radiation Protection In Operation Theater

Radiation Protection In Operation Theater

  • Radiation in the operating room is prevalent issue in many situation for the patient, surgeon radiation technologist and operating staff. exposure to radiation has been associated with increased risk of cancer among surgeries in orthopedic hospitals, increase prevalence of breast cancer in female orthopedic surgeon, heightened risk of cardiovascular disease, increased risk of melanoma among radiological technicians, long term effects on cataract among many other determent and dangerous effect.

  • The effects of radiation are particularly reverent among spine surgeries whose dose rate during fluoroscopically assisted pedicle screws insertion can be 10-12 times higher than non spinal thoracolumbar musculoskeletal procedure.

  •  A hybrid operating room is a surgical theater that is equipped with an appropriate theater table and advance medical imaging devices such as C-Arms, CT-Scanner,  MRI Scanner these images devices enable minimally invasive surgery which is less traumatic for the patient. 

  • There are some technique to reduce and mitigate radiation exposure and protect yourself and your patient the operating room.
  1. Use radiation shielding
  2. Reduce Fluoroscopic Exposure
  3. Machine vision image guided surgery
Read General Precaution In Operation Theater 

Use Radiation Shielding 

Physical protection such as lead - lined shield existing in operating room and surgeon/staff standing behind that shield this is the method of shielding in order to reduce radiation exposure . the practice of wearing lead apron vests, apron and thyroid shield or collars ( These are the radiation shielding material ) is widely adopted as a primary method of shielding the surgeon and operating staff from ionizing radiation proper practice of wearing and storing aprons are crucial to the efficiency of wearing lead as a shield however radiation blockage as low as 37.1% has been reported. 

Reduce Fluoroscopy Exposure 

Another way to reduce radiation in the operating room when using fluoroscopy is to follow ALARA ( as low as reasonably achievable ) principles, designed to minimised radiation dose to the patient and surroundings using pulsed fluoroscopy rather than live or continues fluoroscopy is one technique to reduce exposure using landmarks, manipulating the the X-Ray beam (Collimation) and laser targeting are also ways to eliminate excess exposure.

Eg: When we do IVP ( Intravenous Pyelogram ) we use point shoot radiographic technique i.e we take x rays at a specific time i.e at 2min, 5min, 10min etc. through this method we can reduce the radiation factor.

Machine Vision Image- Guided Surgery 

In addition to improving surgical outcomes and screw accuracy using a machine vision image guided surgery system such as 7D surgical systems to eliminate all radiation associated with navigation from the operating room. using only visible light to perform the registration in a totally sterile surgeon controlled 20 sec workflow the patient anatomy is easily registered to a pre operative scan.
E.g: While doing orthopedic surgery we use C-Arm machine which is a image guided machine this machine is use to fix the bones and see the placement of rods and screws at right place or not benefit of this machine is patient is less traumatic and the chances of success and correct surgery is much increase.
Radiation Protection In Operation Theater


General Protection Method

  • Allow implement of System ALARA principle ( as low as reasonable achievable ) simply put use the lowest radiation dose for the shortest time to achieve the required result.

  • Keep Your Distance: Radiologist much stand 1.8m away from the radiation.

  • Keep the X-Ray tube under the operating table to reduce the scatter radiation.

  • Wear Lead aprons for radiation protection and other thing like thyroid shield, lead gloves, lead glasses.

  • Always use TLD (Thermoluminiscent Dosimeter) it is use to detect the how much radiation absorb by the radiologist body if it exceed the permissible dose then radiologist much do not do any kind of radiological procedure till further notice by the authorities.  

  • KV & MAS must be given low. unnecessary high exposure harm patient and as well as  radiographer.

  • Use of collimation if we want take image of any specific part so we must use collimators to reduce unnecessary radiation and reduce scatter radiation as well.

  • Use of Grid: grid help to reduce the scatter radiation. 

Conclusion 

Radiation protection operation theater is must achieve because it harm doctors, staff and as well as patient it can also cause cancer because it just X-Rays which is very harmful and cause mutation in our body.

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