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What is Orthopantomography ( OPG )

 What is orthopantomography ( OPG ) it is an extraoral radiography technique which images maxilla and mandible in a single film.

OPG is also known as panaromic radiography.

What is Orthopantomography ( OPG )
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What is OPG (orthopantomography)

Purpose of OPG

It provides the overall view of maxilla and mandible with their supporting structure, it helps in evaluating of following:

  • Fractures of jaws.
  • Impacted, unerupted and supernumerary teeth. 
  • Eruption pattern of teeth 
  • Cyst & tumor of jaws
  • Various endocrine, nutritional and blood disorder of jaws.
  • Development of anomalies affecting teeth and jaws.
  • Temporomandibular joint and maxillary sinus. 

Principle of OPG

If the films moves at the speed, which follows the moving projection of a certain point, this point will always be projected on the same point on film and will not appear unsharp.

In, OPG the film is attached to a rotating system and moves in opposite direction to the beam the film is given correct speed by opposing this movement with contary movement relative to the beam.

Procedure Of OPG

  • Explain the OPG procedure to the patient.
  • Make the patient wear a lead apron  and remove all object from the head which will interfere with film exposure eg. ear ring, necklace, nose ring.
  •  Special attention  must be paid for proper sitting of patient along focal through area.
  • Patient is instructed to look straight rather than following movement pf tube.
  • Patient is positioned such that dental arches are located in middle of focal through area.
  • Mid sagittal plane is kept perpendicular to floor.
  • patient back and spine is adjusted in erect position and the occlusal plane adjusted so the Frankfurt is parallel to floor done by asking the patient to place central incisor into a notched incisal device using a bite block. 
  • Mark on film: Left & Right with lead marker.
  • Center the lower border of mandible on the chin rest and is equidistant.
  • Instruct the patient to position the tongue on palate. 
  • After the exposure complete then film is subjected to routine processing.

Advantage of OPG

  • It is a simple procedure requiring very little patient compliance.
  • It is convenient for the patient.
  • It is useful in patient with trismus and gagging problems
  • Time required is minimal as compared to full mouth intraoral periapical radiograph
  •  Patient dose is relatively low.
  • It is Useful for mass screening.

Disadvantage of OPG 

  • Specialized equipment is required. the cost is two or four time that of intraoral x ray machine.
  • Geometric distortion, magnification and overlapping of structures.
  • Objects whose recognition may be important for the interpretation may be situated outside the plane of focus called focal through 
  • Does not show the anatomical details.

OPG X-Ray Machine Or Dental X-Ray Machine

What is Orthopantomography ( OPG )
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